Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

  • The following articles are helpful resources for parents and teachers to use. These resources are from the book, Teaching Teens With ADD, ADHD & Executive Function Deficits: A Quick Reference Guide for Teachers and Parents 2nd Revised (2011) Edition by Chris A Zeigler Dendy 

    Teenagers with ADD, ADHD & Executive Function Deficits: A Guide for Parents and Professionals Paperback  (2017) by Chris A Zeigler Dendy

    Classroom Accommodations for Children with ADHD by Dr. Russell A. Barkley, Ph.D., in The ADHD Report (p. 7-10), published by Guilford Press, 2008.

    This article gives teachers and parents a list of recommendations to be used to help manage students with ADHD in school settings. There are nine principles that should be considered when planning and managing programs. There is a list of classroom management increasing incentives, self-awareness training, making rules and time obvious and in physical form, and possible punishment methods.

    Click here for the article.

    Great Classroom Accommodations for Children and Teens with ADHD by Dr. Russel Barkley, Ph.D.

    This article was publish in Dr. Russel Barkley, Ph.D. workbook called, Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Clinical Workbook (3rd ed.) by Russell A. Barkley and Kevin Murphy. Copyright 2006 by The Guildford Press.

    Click here for the article.

    Dr. Russell Barkley's webpage has numerous resources and current research to read. Click here to go to his webpage.

  • Current Research & Treatments

    Moore, D.A., Russell, A.E., Arnell, S., & Ford, T.J. (2017, January). Educators' experiences of managing students with ADHD: a qualitative study. Child: care, health and development, 43(4), 489-498.

    This article discusses:

    • Using a range of general inclusive strategies which focused on the deficit skill and needs not the ADHD symptoms.
    • Strategies were used in an adhoc and flexible manner.
    • Support for students with accessing curriculum and coping with school.
    • Movement and taking frequent breaks helps with focus and retaining information.
    • Importance of developing a positive relationship which in turn helps develop a healthy self-esteem and social skills.
    • Mix of experiences with medications (hinder and helpful): medication gave students a zombie effect vs. allowed the student to focus on effective strategies.

    Meppelink, R., de Bruni, E.I., & Bogels, S.M. (2016). Meditation or Medication? Mindfulness training versus medication in the treatment of childhood ADHD: a randomized controlled trial. BMC Psychiatry, 1-16.

    This article discusses:

    • Alternative non-pharmacological treatment
    • Mymind mindfulness training for children and adolescents
    • Stimulant medication is effective in reducing ADHD symptoms and is currently the first choice of treatment but has limitations
    • Is a need for non-pharmacological treatments
    • Mindfulness treatment shows promising results in reducing symptoms
    • More research needs to be completed for effective treatments

    DuPaul, G.,Weyandt, Lisa & Janusis, Grace. (2011). ADHD in the classroom: Effective intervention strategies. Theory Into Practice(50), 35-40.

    This article discusses:

    • Effective school based interventions strategies are critical
    • Modifications to academic instruction
    • Home-to-school communication programs
    • Collaborative relationships between teachers and consultants
    • Optimal treatment plan will include the combination of home- and school-based behavioral strategies, and possibly with medication
    • Principles to consider: 1. treatment plans should be balanced by including both proactive and reactive behavioral interventions, 2. assessment data should be used to design, evaluate, and modify interventions within and across school years, and 3. collaborative consultation and multiple mediators (peers, computer technology, and students with ADHD) should be used to deliver treatment so that classroom teachers are not asked to shoulder all of the responsibility of interventions (page 40).

    Heijer, Anne E. Den, Groen, Y., Tucha, L., Fuermaier, A., Koerts, J., Lange, K.W., Thome, J., & Tucha, O. (2017). Sweat it out? The effects of physical exercise on cognition and behavior in children and adults with ADHD: a systematic literature review. Psychiatry and preclinical psychiatric studies, 1-26.

    This article discusses:

    • Exercise increases the brains function
    • Many cases would benefit from exercise: 1. when deficits are not normalized by pharmacological treatment, 2. when pharmacological treatment is not the first choice treatment, 3. when effects of pharmacological treatment on a child's problem behaviors are inconsistent, or 4. when children suffer from milder disturbances which might benefit from physical exercise, thus possibly eliminating the need for pharmacological treatment.
    • Advantages of physical exercise: cheap, non-invasive, and easy to implement, health benefits, and improve psychological well-being
    • Programs should be individually adapted: Cardio exercise has beneficial effects in regard to several cognitive, behavioral, and socio-emotional functions
    • Both cardio and non-cardio exercise should be further examined in well-controlled studies to allow more definite conclusions and explore the potential treatment effects (page s22)

    Pan, Chien-Yu, Chu, C-H., Tsai, C-L., Lo, Sh-Y., Cheng, Y-W., & Liu, Y-J. (2016). A racket-sport intervention improves behavioral and cognitive performance in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Research in Developmental Disabilities(57), 1-10.

    This article discusses:

    • Playing racket ball (table tennis) exercise on motor skills, social behaviors, and executive functions in children with ADHD
    • Improvements were seen in all areas: motor skills, social behaviors, and executive functions
    • Recommendations: racket-sport interventions (exercise) should be included within treatments

    Janssen, Tieme W.P., Bink, M., Gelade, K., van Mourik, R., Maras, A., & Oosterlann, J. (2016). A randomized controlled trial into the effects of neurofeedback, methylphenidate, and physical activity on EEG power spectra in children with ADHD. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 57(5), 633-644.

    This article discusses:

    • Provides evidence for specific neurophysiological effects after theta/beta NF (neurofeedback) and MPH (methylphenidate) treatment in children with ADHD
    • Medication works short term for some or has side effects
    • Evidence for specific neurophysiological effects after theta/beta neurofeedback and stimulant treatment in children with ADHD (p. 641)
    • Students who were on medication and doing a physical task improvements were found (p. 641)
    • Neurofeedback protocols may benefit from training solely theta activity during both task and nontask conditions in children with elevated theta (p. 641). Meaning the combination of medication, skill training, and physical exercise may be beneficial.
    • More research needed to be conclusive

    Gelade, K, Janssen, T.W.P, Bink, M., Twisk, J., van Mourik, R., Maras, A., & Oosterialann, J. (2018). A 6-month follow-up of an RCT on behavioral and neurocognitive effects of neurofeedback in children with ADHD. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry(27), 581-593.

    This article discusses:

    • This is a 6-month follow up from the previous study (above)
    • Teachers reported less inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity for neurofeedback than physical activity
    • No significant group differences for parent reports and neurocognitive measures
    • More research needed to be conclusive
  • DSM-5 Diagnosis Criteria for ADHD

    People with ADHD show a persistent pattern of inattention and/or hyperactivityimpulsivity that interferes with functioning or development:

    1. Inattention: Six or more symptoms of inattention for children up to age 16, or five or more for adolescents 17 and older and adults; symptoms of inattention have been present for at least 6 months, and they are inappropriate for developmental level:
      • Often fails to give close attention to details or makes careless mistakes in schoolwork, at work, or with other activities.
      • Often has trouble holding attention on tasks or play activities.
      • Often does not seem to listen when spoken to directly.
      • Often does not follow through on instructions and fails to finish schoolwork, chores, or duties in the workplace (e.g., loses focus, side-tracked).
      • Often has trouble organizing tasks and activities.
      • Often avoids, dislikes, or is reluctant to do tasks that require mental effort over a long period of time (such as schoolwork or homework).
      • Often loses things necessary for tasks and activities (e.g. school materials, pencils, books, tools, wallets, keys, paperwork, eyeglasses, mobile telephones).
      • Is often easily distracted
      • Is often forgetful in daily activities.
    2. Hyperactivity and Impulsivity: Six or more symptoms of hyperactivity-impulsivity for children up to age 16, or five or more for adolescents 17 and older and adults; symptoms of hyperactivity-impulsivity have been present for at least 6 months to an extent that is disruptive and inappropriate for the person’s developmental level:
      • Often fidgets with or taps hands or feet, or squirms in seat.
      • Often leaves seat in situations when remaining seated is expected.
      • Often runs about or climbs in situations where it is not appropriate (adolescents or adults may be limited to feeling restless).
      • Often unable to play or take part in leisure activities quietly.
      • Is often “on the go” acting as if “driven by a motor”.
      • Often talks excessively.
      • Often blurts out an answer before a question has been completed.
      • Often has trouble waiting his/her turn.
      • Often interrupts or intrudes on others (e.g., butts into conversations or games)
    In addition, the following conditions must be met:
    • Several inattentive or hyperactive-impulsive symptoms were present before age 12 years.
    • Several symptoms are present in two or more setting, (such as at home, school or work; with friends or relatives; in other activities).
    • There is clear evidence that the symptoms interfere with, or reduce the quality of, social, school, or work functioning.
    • The symptoms are not better explained by another mental disorder (such as a mood disorder, anxiety disorder, dissociative disorder, or a personality disorder). The symptoms do not happen only during the course of schizophrenia or another psychotic disorder.
    Based on the types of symptoms, three kinds (presentations) of ADHD can occur:
    • Combined Presentation: if enough symptoms of both criteria inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity were present for the past 6 months
    • Predominantly Inattentive Presentation: if enough symptoms of inattention, but not hyperactivity-impulsivity, were present for the past six months
    • Predominantly Hyperactive-Impulsive Presentation: if enough symptoms of hyperactivity-impulsivity, but not inattention, were present for the past six months.

    Because symptoms can change over time, the presentation may change over time as well.